What is Cinnamon, City, and French Roast? coffee roast degree

The roasting process is crucial to determining the flavor of coffee.

Coffee beans are the seeds of the coffee fruit. Raw beans are pale green and have no coffee-like taste or aroma. Only by applying heat to them and roasting them can they take on color, aroma, and flavor, becoming drinkable coffee.

In other words, we believe that roasting is a very important process that determines the taste and flavor of coffee, and that more focus should be placed on the skills and thinking of the roaster who Koike the coffee (which is why the service CROWD ROASTER focuses on roasting).

Among all types of roasting, the theme this time is "roast degree."
The flavor of coffee comes from chemical changes that occur when the components in the beans are heated. The duration of heating and the method of applying heat affect how bitter, sour, and other components are extracted, which changes the taste of the coffee.

That's why it's so important to know how the coffee was roasted.
The degree of roast is one indicator.
However, since there are no common standards for roasting degree, it should be considered as a guideline.

The degree of roasting is closely related to aroma and flavor

The degree of roast is an indicator of how much heat has been applied to the coffee beans, and is generally proportional to the roasting time.
The lower the heat, the lighter the roast will be, and the higher the heat, the darker the roast will be.
If the coffee beans are lightly roasted, their color will be light, while if they are deeply roasted, their color will be darker and they will exude more oils.

This is easy to imagine if you have ever seen beans with different roast levels.

The taste also changes depending on the degree of roast; lightly roasted coffee tends to have a stronger acidity and weaker bitterness, while darker roasted coffee tends to have a stronger bitterness and weaker acidity.

Characteristics of a light roast

It has a strong acidity and a fruity taste. The aroma of the beans is widely expressed. The mouthfeel and body are light.

Characteristics of dark roast

The bitterness becomes stronger, and the aroma becomes more roasted. The mouthfeel becomes rich and full-bodied.

8 levels of roasting

Roast levels can be broadly categorized into light roast, medium roast, medium-dark roast, and dark roast.

As a more detailed division, an eight-level classification is often used in Japan.

There are eight levels of roast, starting from light roast, followed by light roast, cinnamon roast, medium roast, high roast, city roast, full city roast, French roast, and Italian roast .

CROWD ROASTER also indicates the degree of roasting using these eight levels.
This is to allow the roaster to express more subtle nuances.
Of course, the decision on the degree of roasting is made by each individual roaster, so even if the roasting level is the same, it may vary depending on the roaster.

Incidentally, this eight-level classification is said to be based on that used in America in the old days, and some names (France, Italy) indicate national preferences, while "City" is said to be the level of roast preferred in New York City.

As a rough guide only, we will briefly explain the 8 levels of roasting used at CROWD ROASTER , from the lightest light roast to the darkest Italian roast, along with icons that indicate the roasting level.

As mentioned above, there is no clear standard for the color of coffee beans, so we are describing the relationship between the first crack and the second crack, which are stages in the roasting process. The first crack is when the beans expand due to carbon dioxide after the moisture has evaporated and a popping sound can be heard, and the second crack is when the beans continue to roast, the color darkens, the oils come out, and a high-pitched popping sound can be heard.
(The roasting process will be explained in detail in another article.)
1. Light roast
The lightest roast, around one crack. The beans are only lightly colored.

2. Cinnamon Roast
A light roast, slightly more roasted than light, the name comes from the state in which the beans are cinnamon-colored.

3. Medium roast
From here, it becomes medium roast. It is after the first crack and just before the second crack. It is also called American roast.

4. High Roast

2. In the middle of the crack or around that stage. A slightly advanced medium roast, sometimes called a medium-dark roast.

5. City Roast

From here on, it gets darker. The second crack is over and the color becomes much darker. The name "City" comes from New York City.

6. Full City Roast

The second crack has converged and the roast has progressed further. The oils on the surface create Hikaru pattern.

7. French Roast

A lot of oil will seep out to the surface of the beans.

8. Italian Roast

More oil will rise to the surface and turn charcoal in color.

So far, we have introduced eight levels of roasting, which are only a guideline.

In reality, the progress of chemical reactions varies depending on the roasting temperature, the state of the beans, the time, etc. Also, each roaster has their own judgment.
I think this alone will give you an idea of ​​how deep the world of roasting is.
We will continue to delve deeper into this world with the cooperation of fellow roasters, so please look forward to it.